Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) & Estrogen Hormones
Hormonal changes are the most studied theory but fail to show consistency
among all women with HG. Most studies focus on the changes in hCG and
steroid hormones like cortisol, estrogen, and progesterone in early
pregnancy because onset and peak of symptoms correlate with elevations in
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin and Hyperemesis Gravidarum
T. Murphy Goodwin, MD
There are a number of reasons for considering the association of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) with hyperemesis gravidarum. The temporal relationship between peak hCG levels and the most common time of nausea and vomiting has long been noted. More recently, the relationship of hCG to transient hyperthyroidism of hyperemesis gravidarum (THHG) has been described. Several experiments of nature have suggested that hCG plays a role. We will consider these interrelated lines of evidence.
Pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract during pregnancy
Singer AJ, Brandt LJ.
Department of Medicine, Montefiore Hospital and Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York.
Am J Gastroenterol 1991 Dec;86(12):1695-712
Pregnancy is associated with a wide variety of physiologic changes in virtually all the organ systems of the body. Some of these changes, such as the hyperventilation of pregnancy with its resulting respiratory alkalosis, are clinically silent, whereas others, such as heart-burn and hemorrhoids, cause significant distress. The effects of pregnancy on the hepatobiliary system have been the subject of much scrutiny and many publications, whereas disturbances of the hollow viscera have been infrequently reviewed. In this report, we will discuss the major pathophysiologic changes that occur along the length of the hollow viscera of the gastrointestinal tract during pregnancy.
Serum chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), schwangerschaftsprotein 1 (SP1), progesterone and oestradiol levels in patients with nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy.
Masson GM, Anthony F, Chau E.
British Journal of Obstetrics Gynaecology. 1985 Mar;92(3):211-5
Serum concentrations of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), schwangerschaftsprotein 1(SP1), progesterone and oestradiol were measured in 116 pregnant women experiencing varying degrees of nausea and vomiting or no nausea at all at between 9 and 16 weeks gestation. The patients were categorized into four groups, namely asymptomatic, nausea alone, nausea and vomiting and hyperemesis gravidarum. The distribution of levels for each group were examined in relation to the calculated normal ranges. Statistically higher hCG levels were found in out-patients with nausea alone or nausea and vomiting than in the asymptomatic women. No significant differences were found between the groups for any of the other measured variables, including the progesterone/oestradiol concentration ratio.
Updated on: Apr. 18, 2013